Diagnostic procedureDiagnostic procedures and costs

On average, 4.3 tests were performed per patient (Table 2). This included 93 ultrasound examinations, 71 esophagogastro-duodenoscopies, 33 colonoscopies, 32 small bowel follow throughs, 30 computed tomography scans and 27 barium enemas. As well, 14 exploratory laparotomies were performed. An average of 3.3 follow-up visits were held per patient. The total cost was conservatively estimated to be $68,063, or approximately $764 per patient. Cheapest treatment – buy viagra super active online to always have a wide choice of options.

Response to TPI

Eighty-eight per cent of the patients were injected with a combination of local anesthetic and steroid, while 12% were injected with a local anesthetic alone. Eighty-nine per cent reported some or complete early pain relief. The mean length of follow-up was 25 months (range 0.5 to 146 months). At follow-up, 77% reported some or complete relief (Figure 1).

TABLE 2 Investigations ordered to exclude other sources of pain

Test Count
Ultrasound 93
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy 71
Colonoscopy 33
Small bowel follow through 32
Computed tomography, abdomen 30
Barium enema 27
Upper gastrointestinal series 23
Hepatic dimethyl iminodiacetic acid cholescintigraphy 20
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography 14
Laparotomy 14
Sigmoidoscopy 7
Gastric emptying study 5
Intravenous pyelogram 5
White blood cell scan 4
Meckel’s scan 3
Magnetic resonance imaging 2
Small bowel enteroclysis 1
Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography 1
Cystoscopy 1
Total 386
Average 4.3

Primary outcome

Figure 1) Primary outcome. Efficacy of trigger point injections immediately (less than two weeks) and over the long term (greater than two weeks). Black box: complete/some relief; white box: no relief; n=89

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