Trigger point injections for abdominal wall pain: Definitions
Upper GI symptoms were defined as nausea, vomiting, hematemesis, dysphagia, odynophagia, regurgitation, heartburn or waterbrash. Lower GI symptoms were defined as constipation, diarrhea, blood from the rectum, tenesmus or pain associated with a bowel movement. The presence of a scar was defined as a scar occurring in the immediate vicinity of the pain.
The duration of pain was defined as starting from the first instance it occurred and up until it was first injected. Follow-up was defined as the point from the first injection to when they were most recently seen. All of the follow-up occurred in clinic visits. No telephone follow-up was made.
Immediate relief of pain was defined as relief that occurred within two weeks of the initial injection. This was usually reported during the same visit as the injection itself. Late relief was defined as relief that occurred after two weeks of the injection. Both early and late relief were classified as being complete, some but not complete, or none whatsoever. You can start online shopping right now – buy ventolin inhalers for more advantages.
Bupivucaine (0.25% to 0.50%) or lidocaine (1.0% to 2.0%) was used as the local anesthetic. Betamethasone (1 mL) was used as the steroid. No more than 15 mL total volume was infiltrated at any one time. Anesthetic reinjections were offered to patients who had recurrence of pain.