Tag: hypertonic saline

(2) Inhalations of a variety of agents that include solutions of low osmo-larity and low ion concentration (eg, distilled water) or high osmolarity and high ion concentration (eg, hypertonic sodium chloride), capsaicin, citric acid, acetic acid, ethyl ether, acrolein, ammonia, sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, and acetylcholine; and (3) intravenous injections of lobeline and paraldehyde.

Therefore, the clinical significance of the improvements seen with these two agents must await the results of additional studies that assess short-term and long-term effects on the patients condition. buy birth control online While bronchodilators (eg, P-adrenergic agonists, theophylline, and anticholinergic agents) might theoretically improve the superficial velocity of cough by improving flow rates, these […]

Cough Effectiveness Since the effectiveness of the airway clearance function of cough should be theoretically related in a direct way to the superficial linear velocity of the gas flowing through the airway (superficial velocity = flow rate/cross-sectional area of the airway), drugs that either increase superficial velocity or alter mucous factor(s) so that expectoration is […]

Protussive Therapy When cough performs a useful function and is inadequate, protussive therapy may be indicated. Protussive therapy is defined as treatment that aims to increase cough effectiveness with or without increasing cough frequency. ventolin 100 mcg After reviewing the literature on the efficacy of protussive treatment, we concluded the following about evaluating this form […]

Even though synthetically produced racemic glau-cine has been shown to be an effective, nonnarcotic, centrally acting antitussive drug, it is only available, to our knowledge, in some eastern European countries. Readers should be cautioned that the drug marketed in Europe by the trade name, Glaucine, is not the same drug, and it should not be […]

Drugs that May Increase the Threshold or Latency of the Cough Center An extensive number of narcotic and nonnarcotic agents have been studied and can be classified in this section. On the basis of numerous studies on artificially induced cough in animals and healthy subjects, as well as clinical trials on pathologic cough in patients, […]

Fenoterol may not have worked as a nonspecific antitussive when it attenuated fiberoptic bronchoscopy-induced cough, since asthmatic subjects may have been included in the study group. The study that showed that cromolyn sodium significantly decreased cough in symptomatic young smokers is subject to the same criticism. While beclomethasone dipropionate did not affect cough in the […]

According to our criteria, ipratropium bromide in chronic bronchits, iodopropylidene glycerol in chronic bronchitis and asthma, Guai-mesal (a synthetic agent whose chemical structure includes salicylate and guaiacol rings) in acute and chronic bronchitis, and dexbrompheniramine male-ate plus pseudoephedrine sulfate in the common cold have been shown to be effective antitussive drugs. Because of conflicting results, […]

Since the site or sites of action of some drugs are not known for certain and since it may be determined in the future that some agents may exert their effects on additional sites, this categorization of nonspecific antitussive agents, although not necessarily precise, is meant to serve as a helpful framework for this discussion.

(2) In evaluating antitussive action, it is not only important to assess a change in the frequency of cough, but also a change in intensity (severity). (3) Since objective cough counting can only evaluate cough frequency, while the patients subjective assessment probably integrates both cough frequency and intensity, it is possible for a drug to […]