Bronchial biopsies were done using a forceps (Olympus). With cups open, the forceps was carefully placed on the more abnormal mucosal area and pressed firmly, before closing the cups and withdrawing the forceps. If bleeding occurred after taking the first specimen, the lesion was washed with physiologic saline solution and 0.05 percent epinephrine instilled to avoid a biopsy of overlying clotted blood. Each biopsy specimen was fixed in formaldehyde solution (formalin), embedded in paraffin, and sectioned. Four sections were prepared at four different levels within each specimen and were routinely stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Additional preparations for mucin and eytokeratin were done when indicated. antibiotics levaquin
In accordance with the 1981 UICC classification,lh the following histologic categories were recognized: squamous carcinoma (SC); small-cell carcinoma (SCC); adenocarcinoma (AC); and large-cell carcinoma (LCC). Adenosquamous carcinomas, along with nonclassified carcinomas, were incorporated in the waste category of “others.” Although several cytologists and pathologists participated in the microscopic slide reading, the opinion of one cvtopathologist (S.R.), who reviewed most specimens (including all the dubious ones), constitutes the basis of the data presented in this report.