Diagnostic, Morphologic, and Histopathologic Correlates in Bronchogenic Carcinoma (3)Eligible for this study were patients with a carcinoma of the lung pathologically confirmed, whatever the tissue biopsied and the way used to access; however, because of the existence of diverse practical difficulties in obtaining a copy of the pathologic reports not already kept at the service, we limited the analysis of histotypes to the sole available diagnoses, ie, those made bronchoscopically or with postbronchoscopic specimens of sputum. buy ventolin inhalers
Endoscopic procedures were performed by three bronchoscopists (including one of the authors), all having undertaken more than 300 examinations at the beginning of the study. A classification of the visible bronchial abnormalities has been used by our team since the early 1980s. This classification was developed as a simplified version of that proposed by Ikeda in an attempt to give the best description to the physician responsible for the patient. The following categories are used: (1) tumor: an endobronchial mass presenting either as an irregular cauliflower-like vegetation or as a lobulated fleshy growth; (2) necrosis: white necrotic coating of either flat mucosal lesions or frankly polypoid tumors; (3) infiltration: an irregular area of the mucosal surface, often swollen and surrounded by a halo of redness and engorgement of blood vessels; (4) compression: any form of extrinsic compression, deformation, and narrowing of bronchi, often associated with fixity and reduced motility, and with an apparently well-preserved mucosa; (5) aspecific findings (AS): localized redness and vessel engorgement, without swelling and irregularity of the mucosal layer; and (6) normal: absence of localized abnormalities.