Diagnostic, Morphologic, and Histopathologic Correlates in Bronchogenic Carcinoma (1)
For the diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma, no method has proven more valuable than endoscopic examination of the tracheobronchial tree. The introduction of the fiberoptic bronchoscope (FB) in the late 1960s further enhanced the diagnostic potential of the examination. The flexibility of the new instrument ameliorated both the acceptability to patients and the security of the procedure. Bronchoscopy, which includes both visual inspection and collection of specimens for cytohistologic studies, is now an essential part of the routine work-up of any patient suspected of having lung cancer. flovent inhaler
Fifteen years ago, Sackner reviewed the clinical application of flexible bronchoscopy. Since then, modifications in the use of the FB, such as lung transbron-chial biopsies, lymph node transbronchial needle aspirations, or alveolar lavages for peripheral lesions, have sometimes been adopted. Nevertheless, even today, the majority of diagnoses are substantiated by biopsy, brushing, and washing specimens obtained during a routine fiberoptic bronchoscopy.
Several studies have investigated the overall accuracy of the diagnostic techniques used in association with the FB. Other studies have compared them to other methods of cytohistologic sampling (for example, to percutaneous needle aspiration). More recently, the capability of the same techniques in making a correct diagnosis of cell type has been the object of diverse reports.