Respiratory Failure

This is rather high for a diagnostic test. When results of serum and BAL fluid are combined, the sensitivity increases to 88 percent, decreasing the frequency of false negatives in cancer patients. However, the specificity decreases to 88 percent and positive predictive Value is only 66 percent. We used 1,000 ng/mg as the cutoff in […]

In the present study, although CEA levels in BAL fluid and serum were higher in smokers than in nonsmokers, differences were not significant. Likewise, no correlation was found between cigarette consumption expressed in pack/years and CEA assay. Patients with pneumonia also had elevated CEA levels in both BAL fluid and serum, but differences with respect […]

It has been shown that the diagnostic yield of TB varies from 30 percent to 80 percent, averaging about 50 percent. When it is combined with bronchial brushing or bronchial washings, it could increase up to 74 percent. However, this is sometimes insufficient. Thus, the use of other methods, such as flow cytometry or tumor […]

Using both serum and BAL fluid CEA levels, the sensitivity increases to 88 percent, but the specificity decreases to 88 percent. Positive and negative predictive values were 66 percent and 96 percent, respectively. When we add the CEA assay in BAL fluid to the results of the transbronchial biopsy (sensitivity: 55 percent), three new cases […]

We found no correlation among age, cigarette consumption, and CEA levels in any of the groups. Patients with cancer had CEA lavage fluid levels significantly higher than patients with pneumonia, in absolute values (p<0.005) or referred to albumin concentration (p<0.05). Similarly, patients with cancer had significantly higher mean CEA levels in serum (p<0.05) and iavage […]

CEA concentrations in BAL were expressed as nanogram of CEA per milligram of albumin. We used albumin as the reference protein denominator assuming that it is diluted to the same degree as CEA by the instilled liquid. Albumin was determinated by radial immunodiffusion using commercial plates (Kallestad Laboratories, Austin, TX).

The aspirate of the first aliquot, which contains most of the mucous secretions and cellular debris, was discarded; the mean fluid recovery of the two other aspirates was 60 percent of the instilled saline solution. The lavage fluid obtained was filtered through a double layer of surgical cotton gauze and then centrifuged for 20 minutes […]

Other pulmonary diseases were also excluded and results of clinical examination and chest roentgenography were normal in all cases. Subjects were included only if bronchoscopy was unrevealing and cytologic and bacteriologic examinations revealed no abnormalities. In patients with peripheral lung cancer, die definitive diagnosis was obtained by transbronchial lung biopsy in five patients and after […]

However, to confirm the diagnostic value of CEA determination in BAL fluid of cancer patients, other lung diseases such as pneumonia should not cause a significant elevation of CEA concentration in BAL. In the present investigation, we have determined CEA level in BAL fluid of patients with uncomplicated pneumonia and compared these levels with those […]

Fiberoptic bronchoscopy is the most effective technique to diagnose lung cancer. When the tumor is visible endoscopically, a positive diagnosis of cancer can be obtained in 98 percent of the cases. However, in peripheral tumors, the diagnostic yield of endoscopic methods is usually lower, depending on tumor size and location.2 Thus, the use of other […]