Hepatocellular carcinoma

In approximately 20% of people, these unite with the right subclavian and jugular lymphatic trunks to form a right lymphatic duct which drains into the junction of the right internal jugular and subclavian veins. This is the most likely mechanism of right supraclavicular lym-phadenopathy in our patients. Interestingly, the first patient that we report had […]

In autopsy studies of patients with HCC, hematogenous dissemination following vascular invasion is extremely common. Lymph node metastases, usually confined to the abdominal or thoracic cavity, are less common and were found in approximately 30% of cases in a large postmortem series. Lymphatic spread can be explained by the finding that even relatively small HCCs […]

In August 1999, a 72-year-old woman with known primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and autoimmune hepatitis type 1 overlap syndrome presented with a 5 cm firm, nontender right supraclavicular lymphadenopathy. PBC had been diagnosed in 1983 on the basis of cholestatic liver function tests, immunoglobulin (Ig) M elevation, positive antimitochondrial antibody and consistent histology with portal […]

A 67-year-old man, with no significant past medical history, presented in August 2002 with a short history of malaise, weight loss, intermittent confusion, ankle edema and jaundice. For many years he had consumed up to a bottle of spirits a day, but had abstained completely from alcohol for the six years prior to this presentation. […]