The efficiency of animal production using somatic cell NT is very low. The doner nucleus must establish normal expression patterns to ensure that the reconstructed embryo develops successfully. To determine the possible genetic causes of death in animal production using NT techniques, the transcription of eight genes (Xist, VEGF, Hsp70.1, FGF10, PCAF, FGFR2, PDGFRa, and […]

All deceased cloned cattle died within 48 h of birth, and all had aberrations in many of their organs. The principal abnormalities at necropsy are shown in Table 2. Seven hearts from deceased clones were abnormal, displaying compensatory cardiac hypertrophy, vascular incompetence and patent foramen ovale, cardiac hemorrhage, and necrosis. At birth, atelectasis was observed […]

Nuclear Transfer The NT procedures have been described in detail by Gong et al.. The donor nuclei were obtained from skin fibroblast cells of elite Holstein cow (age, 4 yr) and from FF cells of a female fetus (gestational age, 40 days). Approximately 27.9% (n = 283) and 37.9% (n = 294) of reconstructed embryos […]

Several mammalian species have been successfully cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT), but only a small proportion of the embryos produced using adult or fetal somatic cells develop into living young (typically between 0 and 4%). Clearly, the causes of low efficiency must be identified if the medical and agricultural potentials of cloning procedures […]