Several epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between cigarette smoking and impaired ovarian function. In fact, smoking women may experience increased rates of pregnancy loss and earlier age at menopause. Although the link between cigarette smoking and complications of pregnancy has been largely proved, very little is known about the effect of smoking on […]

We first investigated the effect of different doses of nicotine and M-nicotine (10—11 to 10—6 M) on progesterone release by human luteal cells cultured for 24 h. Both substances significantly reduced progesterone production compared to control. As shown in Figure 1, nicotine was able to significantly reduce progesterone production at all tested concentrations in a […]

Chemicals The following chemicals were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Corp. (St. Louis, MO): nicotine and M-nicotine, progesterone, collagenase type IV, antibiotics, glutamine, and Hepes. The hCG was obtained from Serono (Milan, Italy), Nutrient Mixture Ham F-12 from Flow Laboratories (Milan, Italy), and fetal calf serum from Biological Industries (Kibbutz Beit Hae-mek, Israel). Trizol and reverse transcription-polymerase […]

Although tobacco smoking is a widely recognized health hazard and a major cause of preventable mortality, consumption of tobacco remains a common practice in human societies. The association between smoking and various cancers, particularly lung disease, is well-known, but the effect of cigarette smoking on reproduction is still unclear. Several epidemiological studies have revealed a […]

In this paper, studies were done to show that an in vivo electroporation is an effective way to study promoters in the rodent epididymis, particularly in the initial segment, which is unique in its dependence on LTFs for normal gene expression and function. Control experiments using a plasmid encoding EGFP under the control of the […]

Localization of EGFP Expression after In Vivo Electroporation in the Initial Segment To test the ability of the in vivo electroporation method to express genes in the initial segment, a plasmid-encoding EGFP under the control of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter was injected intraluminally into the initial segment and electroporated. After 72 h, the initial segments […]

Animals Normal adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (Hilltop Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA) were maintained on a 12L:12D cycle with free access to food and water in the University of Virginia vivarium. All experiments complied with the regulations set forth by the Animal Welfare Act (Public Law 91-579), the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals […]

Tissue-specific gene expression can be controlled at multiple levels by such elements as cis-acting sequences, tissue-specific expression of transcription factors, and local chromatin structure. Promoter analysis is the foundation for understanding how genes are expressed in specific tissues. However, most promoter analysis experiments are carried out in cell culture, either in cells that express the […]